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Monday, March 30, 2020

Basic Electrical Circuits

Electrical Engineering encompasses Everything in Electronics. Communications, Computers etc. are further specializations of Electronics. So it is best to Identify Electrical Circuits with Electrical Designs which excludes Active Devices. It can include Electronic Products in the form of wireable modules.
So House and Factory wiring, Appliances like Ovens, Toasters, Power Generation and management; all these are electrical. Motors, Generators, Connectors, Relays, Contacters and Circuit Breakers are Electrical Components.

See a diagram i made for a Sequential Process Control Unit, custom built for Vacuum Impregnation;

Sequential Process Control - Vacuum Impregnation

A Radio or Power Inverter is Electronic. When an Inverter or Electronic AC-DC Motor Drive is used in a Control panel or Power Supply system, that integration is shown as an Electrical Circuit. I feel Simple Consumer Electronic Circuits using Diodes, Transistors, SCR, Capacitors and Resistors can also be taken under electrical circuits; when they are used in Mains-Power or Household Appliances. Solar Energy related circuits also can be studied under Electrical Power Circuits.

In Electronics RF-Microwave and Communications is a specialization area, Computer Hardware, Software, Internet form another major domain. Networking and Wireless data communication overlaps both the above.

Power Electronics and Instrumentation are fundamental domains needed for many. Industrial Automation with Process Control Instrumentation is unique, but is supported by the fundamental domains. Many more finer areas like Robotics and Medical Electronics have a much sharper focus.

Basic Electrical Circuits - delabs

delabs Technologies

Embedded Microcontroller Systems

Analog devices like transistors and diodes lead to opamps and analog computing. This takes more parts but with fast devices can be real time. Then came Logic and Digital Circuits, here also big systems will take too many parts. A very Old hp Logic Analyzer instrument, could be HP1607A, had more than five large PCBs, Toggle Switches and numerous 74Fxx TTL Chips. I tried to revive it, it could not be fully restored.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

Then came the solution the Microprocessor. Here the entire system goes into the firmware and a Hardware Tool Set in the Microprocessor made up of Logic and Math is sequentially used to perform the same operation that would require innumerable Gates in a plain hardware digital circuit. But as it performs the operations one after another, it takes time and is defined by the CPU Clock Speed.

Embedded Microcontroller - delabs

When the External RAM and EPROM and other peripheral devices moved into the main package, MicroController were born. When more external devices merged with the MicroController. It formed a nearly complete computer, this is known as the SOC.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Mains Power means the 230 V AC 50 Hz or 110 V AC 60 Hz in some countries, The lower power line like 5A is used for small lamps and fans. The higher power line 15A is used to drive the High Power Electrical Appliances like Heaters and Motors. This is a single phase supply.

Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Single phase Supply in layman language means a Live, a Neutral and an optional earth. The earthing is a must in every building along with lightning protection. The Neutral is a close to earth potential, The live can give a shock to a man who is in contact with earth at some part of the human body. So great care has to be taken. This live wire or point can be easily checked by a quality standards approved Neon Tester.

Voltmeter and Ammeter

Three phase supply - there are three Live wires, used in factorys and apartments to power bigger loads and Motors. A 3 phase AC motor is very efficient and economical and most machines like Drills and Lathes are powered by AC Motors. 3 phase supply becomes essential for industry.

The voltage is transmitted and supplied to houses at a high level in comparison to low level of batteries. This High Voltage is not safe but Inevitable, as transmitting at lower voltage means greater current carrying requirements of wires and connectors. That leads to more copper or aluminum usage, more wastage of power due to I2R.

Earthing has to be good, use a Earth Leakage Trip Device. If earth wire gets snapped outside and some appliance is leaking, the metal clad appliances may give shock. Even if no appliance is leaking, the current thru y-capacitors of EMI Filters in Electronic Gadgets like computers are enough to make your Neon tester glow.

The Circuits related to Mains Power
delabs Technologies

Extra Extra !