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An online EE Resource centered around Electronics Engineering Technologies. Product Design, Instrumentation and Automation.

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Sunday, February 02, 2020

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Operational Amplifiers - With a few Op-Amps and a regulated Power supply, many Instrumentation and Process control equipment can be designed. The Human Brain understands Numbers, Quantity and it regulation very well ! On the right you can see a analog controller based on opamps and discrete devices. A Heater, Fan and Motor is regulated, controlled and timed for a process.

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Analog is about numbers, the circuits can be understood and designed mathematically or empirically. Designing and Building a True RMS Rectifier with Op-Amps, will help a designer digest many Op-Amp capabilities.

Analog Op-Amp Circuits

Things you ought to know about Op-Amps -

OpAmp part numbers from various semiconductor companies are designed for both General purpose and special applications. Some have to be cost-effective for consumer low-cost equipment, while others may be advanced in specs, closing in on an ideal Op-Amp.
Instrumentation opamps are used for accurate and low drift applications. These Op-Amps have stringent specifications and are used in the fields like Aerospace or Medical Electronics. A pre-amplifier for an FM Radio may need to be low-priced. Test Measurement needs Op-Amps which have near ideal specs in the area of measurement or application. CMOS low-power devices are used when designs are made for portable gadgets.
  • Outputs cannot be Loaded beyond the drive capacities, Note Resistors and Output Load.
  • Inputs draw a small bias current and will load the signal sources, compensate design.
  • Op-Ams AF-RF or Switching performance study with Slew rate and Bandwidth.
  • Power consumption of some Op-Amps are more and some very less, choose wisely.
  • Look for Standard Pin-Outs, Price, Popularity and study Abs. Max, AC and DC Specs.
  • Use Packages with multiple Op-Amps like LM324 to save board space and assembly time.
  • Op-Amps and its 1% MFR resistors should have a separate supply and far from hot parts.
  • Ultra Low Offset Voltage is required, when you wish to amplify a DC level of say 500uV.
  • Guard rings to be used for High impedance inputs and EMI-RFI Shielding for AF Amplifiers.
  • Glass epoxy PCB, clean surface, Pins and Tracks protected from Moisture and Chemicals.
  • Avoid Ground Loops, Have regulated Low ripple Power supplies. Dynamic Isolation.
delabs Technologies

Process Control Circuits for Automation

These are the circuits and boards of a Mini Temperature Transmitter for a Platinum hundred ohms temperature Sensor.

Industrial Process Control Circuits

Analog Design in Process Control is seen at the Sensor Signal Conditioning Stage. Controllers also use Opamps for Analog Computation Tasks. These are Real Time in the Truest Sense.

Process Control Circuits for Automation

A closed loop controller is the heart of an Industrial Automation System. Right from an On-Off Hysteresis Controller to a Auto Tune PID Controller, we find solutions of different complexities. Each solution might suit a particular system; depending on the requirements of Ease-of-use, Cost and Process Type.

Circuits in process control
Even today, the controllers at every stage of evolution, from the thermostat to Auto-Tune, are used in many countries, for many different industrial applications. No solution above is obsolete! The developing Countries still use electro-mechanical or semi-automatic means for control in some areas. and Process Type.

Closed Loop Control Systems

A Closed Loop Control System is the most important aspect of Maintenance, Regulation and Stability in any Live Process. Nature itself is self regulated in an intricate fashion, a keen observer can notice the subtle controls. In Human Created Industrial systems we have Process control as a complex science. We can start by understanding a Simple One.

Process Control Application Notes

When you fill a Bucket with water, You keep an eye on the Level of water, as you open the Analog Tap, which is an equivalent of a Motor operated Valve. Your Eye is an advanced Optical Sensor, which is able to sense the level by the computation in the brain, which in turn operates the muscles of your hand, thru the nervous system. The hand along with the Water Tap is is the Actuator. As the water fills up close to the top, you start reduction of the water flow and keep observing, then as it tops up, you tweak the tap to a trickle. When it reaches the limit you shut off the tap.

Closed Loop Control Systems

While you are half way filling the bucket, what happens if you take a short nap, or a friend comes by and you are get absorbed in conversation, the water overflows and goes waste. Then someone raises an alarm after the Runaway process happens. This is of minor consequence, but it is not so in the case of Temperature, Pressure and also many common systems like the driving of an Automobile. Remember the gears, brakes, accelerator to control and steer the car to the correct destination, a Runaway Process causes an accident.

Friday, January 03, 2020

Happy New Year - 2016 year of IoT

Happy New Year - 2016 - "Things to Make and Do" - delabs is recycling old greetings for 2020 as a part of our Green Initiative and cost cutting with low Carbon Footprint.

Only one important Message for 2020 - Save the Amazon Rain Forest

IoT - Internet of Things; WSN - Wireless Sensor Networks; M2M - Machine to Machine Data Communication; COR - Collaborative Online Robotics. 

Happy New Year - 2016 year of IoT

All these only mean Wireless Networked Intelligent Embedded Systems. They could be machines, appliance, robot or gadget. The brain is both on the device and in the Clouds.

Internet and Intranet of Things - IoT

When Intelligent Devices (embedded systems) are privately and securely networked, it is called the Intranet of Things. This is like a Home-Office-Business private closed Cloud. This is ideal for Home and Infrastructure Automation and even Big Business or SMB Automation........

A Practical 2018 Engineer

This was the New year greetings of 2018, the same holds good for 2020. 

Making Simple, Safe, Sensible and Sturdy Electronic Products should be the aim of any Electronic Engineer. A prototype should be developed to become a Cost effective Solution.

A Practical 2018 Engineer

Never ship Beta products or sell them at High Prices. New products if not tested and developed completely should be marked Beta and Sold at lower prices. When a manufacturer is on "The Rising Edge of the Learning Curve" (delabs phrase 1998) for a product line, he has to sell products marked beta at lower price or wait till the development is mature. I have learnt this from my own blunders.

In Software Beta markings are clear, even in Webapps they mention. Hardware Industrial products are never sold in beta state. Then the Gadgets boom led to many beta products being sold to consumers at regular prices. This should be avoided to protect the brand name and the reputation of that business segment itself.

Computer Data Interface - delabs

The PC is now an economic and common equipment at home or office. Due to Open source and GNU Linux, many professional programs and environments are easily accessible. To interface it to the real world is a step in learning Automation and Robotics.

Computer Data Interface - delabs

Computer Data Interface - delabs

In Automation we have both Industrial and Home. You can start with home automation, as industrial automation is more complex. But in Home Automation, Safety First should be emphasized, Any neglect in care of electrical hazards will neutralize any advantage of Home Automation.

Printer Port

Do not apply voltage above 5V to any pin of printer port, ensure earthing is good, use opto couplers for inputs and outputs if you are not sure. wrong use will damage motherboard, these circuits should be used only if your basics are very sound.

delabs Technologies 16:16 30-Mar-07

Analog Interface for PC Ports.
Control Interface to PC Ports.

Thursday, May 02, 2019

dapj Tech Publications

At dapj Tech you will find Tech Blogs related to Electronics Engineering, Hobby and Educational Resources too.


Electronic Design
Electronic Parts

Sunday, April 07, 2019

EE Firms and Resources

These pages of mine and other sections of delabs lists firms and EE design resources around the globe, related to Professional and Hobby Electronics. This work of mine started in 1999 on netscape, geocities and tripod homepages. Now it is distributed over few domains and tech blogs that i own and manage.

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Some Electrical and Mechanical pages closely related to Electronic Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering are also listed here. delabs lists more than 10K EE Companies & Resources in the Web.

Categories of EE Websites of Firms and Resources

Extra Extra !