dapj Tech

An online EE Resource centered around Electronics Engineering Technologies. Product Design, Instrumentation and Automation.

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Tuesday, August 04, 2020

Electronic Engineering Resources

Sponsored EE Resources - This section is being added to financially support the delabs internet resources spanning many domains and blogs. Request a Sponsored listing here using the delabs Contact Form.

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Sponsor or Donate to delabs

Your Company or Business also will get a free listing for Five Years as a Sponsor in our Electronics Resources Directory, in an appropriate category. This listing will also be mirrored at Electronics Resources. Request the Sponsored Listing using our Contact Mail form.

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Some Electrical and Mechanical pages closely related to Electronic Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering will also be listed here. Each Subject page is also a Stub for listing and recording the specific subject related writing and posts of delabs in various other blogs and sites.

Categories of EE Websites of Firms and Resources

Sunday, August 02, 2020

Power Electronics and Mains Power

Updated pages, and integrated new pages with some explanations. These are related to mains power and power electronics.

Power and Energy - Mains Voltage and Power Circuits

Electrical Power can be used for most anything. It also can be stored and used later using Batteries. Alternative Energy Solutions like Solar, Wind and Tidal are providing new sources of Energy.

Fossil Fuels are running out and we have to become more energy efficient. Notebooks and Tablets are fast replacing desktop computers. Network servers and Cloud Solutions still use more power than needed. We have to use power for Productive and Creative activities.

Wastage of too much power leaves a mark, a carbon footprint, we also should shift to the low safe voltage standard of 24V. This will make conversion and distribution safe and solar energy friendly.

Power Electronics & Energy Systems

Power Electronics & Energy Systems

Tables related to Power Electronics

Discrete devices and other circuits

Friday, July 03, 2020

Theory- Electronics and Instrumentation

Learning electronics in theory by studying books is the conventional way, this method may help in History and Maths. Maths needs a paper and pencil for practicals and history needs a well equipped Library. In these modern times, the web has made access to wide range of learning information easy, which is true Knowledge Empowerment. The greatest gift a Child can get from the Parents or School, is Knowledge.

Electronics Theory and Tutorials  

Process Control Instruments - These are some instruments i manufactured when i used to run my own industrial automation business.

Theory- Electronics and Instrumentation - delabs

Now many Virtual Electronics Workbench Software and Interactive Tutors are available, these aid learning. We have to design, build and apply some electronic ideas in 3D Hardware, for complimenting the Book, Academic or Web learning.

Practical and Theoretical study in electronics has to be in Tandem, this is possible only when Industry works with Universities to create real talent and skills in students. The applied technology is evolving, hence the academic education must be relevant when the student gets into his first job.

The Evolution of Temperature Control

A closed loop controller is the heart of an Industrial Automation System. Right from an On-Off Hysteresis Controller to a Auto Tune PID Controller, we find solutions of different complexities. Each solution might suit a particular system; depending on the requirements of Ease-of-use, Cost and Process Type.

The Evolution of Temperature Control

A PC based multiplexed scanner controller with data-acquisition cards and I/O Cards can be solution for Laboratory or Research. This is used when real time control is not required or where the control failure will not lead to damage or loss.

A PLC or Microcontroller based controller should be used with a Analog Controller Protection or Over temperature Trip-Alarm.

Thursday, July 02, 2020

Electromagnetic Relays and SSR

Solid State Relays - These designs were improvements i made on the Application Notes of Motorola Semiconductor (freescale) and Thomson CSF (stmicro) Thyristor Data. The parts are still available, now made by other firms. You can also find similar equivalents.

Solid State Relays - SSR

They are called SSR as there are made of semiconductors and have no moving parts to wear out. They do generate heat depending on load and switching. Thyristors are used in most as they are rugged, mosfets and IGBT may also be used for various applications.

Electromagnetic Relays and SSR

In this section you will find SSR designs and PCB layouts which you can study. These were made and sold by me years ago. So the PCB layouts have gone thru some revisions and they worked quite well.

Friday, May 08, 2020

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Control panels are a part of industrial automation. It contains many DIN standard instruments both in the front panel and inside back rails along with the wiring. They are called panel mounting and rail mounting. Cable management is a Science in these equipment.

Just like rackmounts hold big instruments or computers, control panels small or big have to hold DIN Instruments, switches and annunciators to make it easy for the operator. The maintenance work also is simple from the backside. It can be kept near the machinery which it controls.

Electrical Control Panel Wiring

Some Control panels go into Control Rooms at a distance away or at a greater height from the shop floor. This way they can monitor and give instructions while managing a larger process like processing of chemicals and at the same time safeguarding the instrumentation and computers with controlled environments.

Some example circuits of panels here Electrical Control Panel Wiring

delabs Technologies

Temperature Measurement and Control

Temperature Controller 48-96 - A 1/8 DIN Indicating Temperature Controller. This is a Analog Controller built around ICL7107.

Temperature Measurement and Control

This is a 48-96 DIN Temperature Controller, it is mains operated, it is in a Industrial Plastic Housing. It is not meant for very harsh environments. Suitable for Control Panels in Control Rooms. It has a accuracy and linearity of 0.5%. It had options of on-off or time proportional control

Temperature Controller 48-96

J and K Thermocouple with 4-20 mA

Temperature is the most common process parameter, Pressure seems to be next. Flow, Humidity, Strain, Torque, Level, RPM, Distance and many more follow.

When a physical parameter let us say distance is measured, we first need a sensor that converts it into electrical values, digital, pulses(events/limit) or analog. The sensor used for length is a Linear encoder and it creates the electrical information for the DRO to Display.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

Digital Interface to Analog Circuits is an example of Mixed Signal Design. Generating Digital Control Signals from the Analog sections in instruments is also done by Mixed Signal Circuit.

A/D Convertors and D/A Convertors are like Mixed Signal Chips. A Digital Potentiometer that controls an analog signal amplitude with a digital byte or word, figures in Mixed Design Circuit.

Analog Designs have to handle Linear Signals, Like 2.03 V and 35.3812 mA. Waveforms of all shapes from Straight Line DC Levels to the Jittery and Multi-Frequency Audio Waveforms.

Mixed Circuits Analog with Digital

350 MHz Mixed Signal Oscilloscope HMO3524 by HAMEG Instruments

HMO3524 by HAMEG Instruments

Mixed Signal IC or ASIC are chips that are mainly Digital on the Core but have peripheral I/O within the chip to interface with the real world outside, over Analog Signals. Sensors and Actuators use signals in the analog language. The CPU with its Math Power, speaks Digital Words, its behavior thus can be patterned by a Software Program.

Fluid or Water Level with Reed Relays

Some Circuits on above pages are..
  • Voltage to pulse converter using opamps
  • Analog Section of 8751 based flowmeter
  • Voltage to pulse converter impulse counter
  • 16 channel analog multiplexer
  • 8 channel analog mux with sample hold
  • Digital Control for 8 channel analog mux