Thursday, May 02, 2019

dapj Tech Publications

At dapj Tech you will find Tech Blogs related to Electronics Engineering, Hobby and Educational Resources too.


Electronic Design
Electronic Parts

Sunday, April 07, 2019

EE Firms and Resources

These pages of mine and other sections of delabs lists firms and EE design resources around the globe, related to Professional and Hobby Electronics. This work of mine started in 1999 on netscape, geocities and tripod homepages. Now it is distributed over few domains and tech blogs that i own and manage.

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Electronics Engineering and Technologies

Some Electrical and Mechanical pages closely related to Electronic Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering are also listed here. delabs lists more than 10K EE Companies & Resources in the Web.

Categories of EE Websites of Firms and Resources

Monday, February 04, 2019

Circuits using only discrete devices

Here are circuits made of Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors which are passive components. Crystals, Thermistors, Varistors, Variable Passive RLC are also Passive Parts.Some circuits documented from my design note book are here with the editable schematics.

Circuits using only discrete devices

Zeners, Diodes, NPN-PNP Transistors, FET, MOSFET, SCR, Triacs are all discrete active devices. ICs and Hybrid Modules are made of many discrete and passive components.

Circuits using only discrete devices

In the Integrated Circuits or ASICs, all parts even passives are derived on the Silicon Wafer. In Hybrid Modules the construction uses SMD or Tiny Chip components interconnected in a small ceramic PCB and Hermetically Sealed if needed.
Parts like Switches, Connectors, Relays and PCBs are ElectroMechanical parts. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, Cabinets and enclosures are Mechanical parts.

For a Systems Integrator or Control Panel Designer, the Timers, Controllers, PLC which are Electronic Products become Components or Modules along with Contacters, Current Transformers, AC-DC Drives etc.

Tuesday, January 01, 2019

Analog Electronic Circuit Design

The very first designs that came about were analog designs, a Vacuum Tube amplifier is an example. Analog is the representation of data or physical parameter in an accurate and precise decimal number like + 72.182 mV. The greater the resolution required, the more demanding is the design for achieving high accuracy and low drift. Digital circuits have only two voltage levels, high and low, the third state of floating, Hi-Z or high impedance is only for multiplexing or sharing a bus. This is done so that devices dont drive into each other and it is also used in external port drivers.

Analog Design and Circuits

As an analogy, see the conventional water tap as an analog control, an electric light ON-OFF switch as a digital control.

Bob Pease - Analog Guru

Among the semiconductor products Bob designed are temperature-voltage frequency converters used in groundbreaking medical research expeditions to Mt. Everest in the 1980s. He also designed a seismic pre-amplifier chip used to measure lunar ground tremors in the US Apollo moon landing missions. Among his more memorable designs are the LM331 voltage to frequency converter and the LM337 adjustable voltage regulator. - Remembering Bob Pease

Analog Circuits Instrumentation
Even in digital, going from a low level say 0V to a high level say 5V is not instantaneous, the side of the square wave or the rising edge is not as straight as it looks. On zooming only the edge, you see that it is also an analog phenomena. The 'square wave' itself appears to be a summation of many sine waves, 'harmonics'. This is because nature is analog, the sine wave is analog, the movements of the planets or even the spin of electrons in an atom too.

Circuits in Above
delabs Technologies

Monday, May 07, 2018

Industrial Control Panels and Instruments

Instruction Manuals of Process Control Instruments and Industrial Automation Solutions, Control Panel Diagrams, Wiring, and Facia.

Temperature and Pressure Controllers form a large part of Process control Instrumentation. Then you have Flow, Humidity and many more custom parameters.

Electronics Theory - Industrial Control Panels

All Real Life Physical Phenomena are reduced to Analog Numbers by Sensors and Transducers. This analog value is amplified and linearized and brought into standardized windows like 1-5 Volts or 4-20mA and more.

Industrial Control Panels and Instruments

These Analog Values go to Analog Closed Loop Controllers or Meters for Measurement and Control. In Embedded Controllers, the Analog is converted to Digital ( At least 12 bit, 8 bits are cheap not used for industrial automation, more than 16 bits is not required as sensor accuracy/linearity never transgress such precision )
Embedded Process Controllers may use Microcontrollers with Floating Point Arithmetic, Lookup Table, Logic and Basic Math. Advanced Controllers may use DSP and Complex Algorithms for Adaptive control. (self learn, fuzzy logic.).