Theory must be studied once and referred to, again and again as you do practicals. One is by building DIY projects and then modifying them. Also Repair of equipment, troubleshooting, testing and calibrating. Then you know how components behave and real life limitations. Now design and engineer a product and test it at customer site. do a pilot production and test with more clients. Now you will learn to think based on practical applications.
This invention lead to modern electronics, computers and internet look at this page, Transistor Photo.
A picture of the first transistor ever assembled, invented in Bell Labs in 1947. It was called a point contact transistor because amplification or transistor action occurred when two pointed metal contacts were pressed onto the surface of the semiconductor material.
The digital circuits section has been updated, most are in the pdf format. Broken links removed or changed..
Digital Circuits - These circuits are based on CD40xx Chips and other. You can use 74HCT or any other series that is available. use one family for a particular project. These were used nearly two decades ago. Use it for learning, glue logic or to interface your uC designs to external devices.
Do not make only Logic based designs like some below. It would be better to use a uC, CPLD or FPGA if you are building a complex gadget Basic Digital Circuits
Power Supplies, Inverters, UPS, Chargers, Electro Plating, Precision Welding-erosion, Coating Metals and many other Processes are made of high current circuits. Even in measurement of parameters like Micro-Ohm high currents are
involved. Electronic Circuits are required in such products to give
control to time, current, frequency and voltage in order to accomplish
with the required precision a process or job.
In any power equipment, efficiency and reduction of bulk is crucial so SMPS and high frequency control is an important part of this domain. These products also generate EMI-RFI. Product Safety Study is also vital.
Basic Power Supply Designs - AC and DC voltage Regulators, Battery Backup Power Supplies. Battery Chargers, UPS and Inverters. Dual regulated Power Supplies. 5V and 12V Regulators. Benchtop Power Supplies.
Switching Supplies and SMPS - Circuits of SMPS, Power Supply, Switch Mode Power Supply are here. High Voltage Power Supply concept. DC Regulated 3 Pin Power Supplies like 7812 and 7805. Workbench Supplies.
Here are many Types of SSR or Solid State Relays. In this section you will find SSR designs and PCB layouts which you can study. These were made and sold by me years ago. So the PCB layouts have gone thru some revisions and they worked quite well.